Sunday, April 7, 2013

W17_Reginald Nwachukwu_Developing Methods of Measurement for Precast Box Culvert

1. Problem Definition or Opportunity Statement:

To determine how project tasks are to be measured and reported using Earned Value technique:

The lead scheduler has happily inform the Planning & Scheduling project team that stakeholders have accepted/approved the Baseline Plan, Schedule and Scope of Work earlier submitted for approval. Given this development, he further informed the team that EVMS system was stated in the contractual requirements as the basis for reporting progress, performance and variance analysis for the project. He therefore requested that we develop methods for measuring performance and reporting work progress/variances objectively using Earned Value.

2. Development of Feasible Alternatives:

The alternatives developed for measurement of work progress and reporting performance/variances of workers productivity are those of Earned Value Management System (EVM) and each technique is applied specifically to each work item/activity to reflect how work progress can be measured using that technique. The three basic work progress measurement methods include:

(a)  Discreet Effort
(b) Apportioned Effort
(c)  Level of Effort (LOE)

For the purpose of this analysis, evaluation of the various workpages, only the Discreet Effort technique is considered. The Discreet Effort technique has several other techniques used to measure and report progress of work. These methods includes :

(i) Unit Complete
(ii) % Complete
(iii) Start/Finish Method
(iv) Incremental Method
(v) Expert Opinion
(vi) Cost Ratio or LOE Method
(vii) Weighted or Equivalent Method

3. Development of Outcome for Each Alternative:

Development of the Outcome ( or rather Cost objectives) for each method adopted by Discreet Effort technique will define clearly how progress of individual work activity/package will be measured, calculated, recorded and reported using Earned Value technique. Table 1 below shows how each progress measurement method will be measured and reported using EVM.

Table 1 Methods of measurement using Earned Value for Precast Box

4. Selection of Acceptable Criteria:

The criteria used for selection of alternatives will be based on the accuracy of each method to measure "status" or progress and performance OBJECTIVELY considering workers productivity. The various  methods measuring progress should give further insight  into cost variances and schedule variances analysis and trending so as to objective. The CV and SV of each method is compared and analysed to determine accuracy.

5. Analysis and Comparison of Each Alternative:

Based on the outcome for considerations of each work package and the various methods of measurement defined by Earned Value, the Weighted Milestone, Unit Complete, % Complete, LOE were selected for reporting performance and controling of overall work progress.

6. Selection of Preferred Alternative:

Based on the analysis and evaluation of work packages using methods of progress measurement by Discreet Effort technique, it can be recommended that the Equivalent/Weighted Unit Method should be used to more often to determine the performance, progress and productivity of workers effort. Considering the fact that other methods can be easily be applied where task to be performed is known, tangible and easily quantified.

7. Performanance Monitoring and Evaluation of Results:

Since accuracy, reliability and validity of data obtained from EVMS is of uttermost concern; the results obtained from the system will equally depend on the quality of data record and methods used to measure them objectively. Therefore, to improve performance and evaluations of results, data collected to used for EV must be measured, quantified and reported objectively.


1. AACE International (2012) Skills and Knowledge of Cost Engineering (5th Edition Revised) pp. 28.3-28.7  AACE International Morgantown W.V. 

2. Brassard, M. & Ritter, D.(2010). The Memory Jogger 2: Tools for Continuous Improvement and Effective Planning, pp.92-95

3. AACE International (2008) Planning and Scheduling Professional certification Guide (First Edition Revised) pp. 143-145  AACE International Morgantown W.V. 

1 comment:

  1. Hi Reginald, nice posting this week, but I would MUCH rather see you referencing Humphrey's than either Skills & Knowledge OR the Certification Study Guide.

    See you next week!!!

    Dr. PDG, Jakarta